MJS Commodities is a leading privately held international trading company and a subsidiary of MJS Global Group.
Our team has 200+ years combined experience in the procurement and delivery of commodity products and services.
We specialize in the handling of every element involved in the international trade of physical commodities with the focus on high-quality agro products, precious metals, polished diamonds and gemstones, solid and liquid fuels, and hydrocarbon-free 100% biodegradable packaging we move soft and hard commodities from remote locations to where they are most needed – reliably, professionally and efficiently.
We operate, market and advice on multiple raw materials to various client segments around the globe, whether they are import-export businesses, financial institutions, governments and private investors, through the supply chain and bringing them wherever needed.
Our thoughtful services, diversified product lines, and relationships are advanced with integrity and honest straightforward dealing and go to great lengths to ensure professionalism, excellence, and peace of mind. Whether you’re a producer, an existing or potential partner in government or business, or an end-user we have the focus, passion, and commitment to get you closer to your markets.
We value the success and accomplishments of our principals as we value our company and people. By combining both of our visions, the results are limitless. Our attitude is making all possible efforts, instead of deeming it impossible, with a conviction to take the business deal to successful completion to enrich both our clients and our societies.
Glossary of terms used in the international jute commodity trade.
It is the weight of fabric per unit area.
The biggest traders and commissioned agents in the secondary marketing channel but are limited number. They often serve as a source of financing and provide storage facilities.
It is the selection and classification of raw jute according to fibre characteristics prior to packing or baling.
Used mainly for shopping, bags are usually fabricated from sacking or hessian cloths. They are often decorated with varied artistic designs and with straps, chains and handles in several dimensions and shapes. Other categories of bags are promotional bags which are manufactured to promote items for sale.
Bag – A Twill
A double warp hemmed twill bag of 112 X 67.5 cm size and weighing 1190 g with three blue stripes woven along the length of the bag and used for packing sugar.
Bag – B Twill
A double warp hemmed twill sacking bag measuring 112 X 67.5 cm and weighing 1020 g has the capacity of holding 95 kg of food grains. With three blue stripes woven along the length of the bag and is used for packing food grain. Due to ILO stipulation, a new type of B.Twill bag has been developed with 50 kg capacity, dimensions 94 X 57 cm and bag weight of 665 g.
Bale (Fabric or Jute Bags)
A rectangular or square pressed, rigid package, containing jute fabrics or bags, covered with bale covering with outer layer stitched and bounded by metal hoops in conformity with the relevant specifications. The bales containing jute bagging do not have bale covering.
Grade-wise selection of Jute/Mesta and followed by morah preparation and segregation of down grade/defective jute/mesta by manual operation.
Bags or Bale processing cloths are pressed compactly according to buyers need.
Bangladesh Jute Association (BJA)
National Representative body of all jute traders and exporters in the private sector of Bangladesh. Member exporters of BJA directly purchase raw jute from the jute growers and bring to terminal market. BJA plays the vital role for regulating the jute market both in home and abroad. They help in ensuring the fair price to the jute growers who produce 100% export oriented product.
Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation (BJMC)
A public corporation in Bangladesh, is the largest state-owned manufacturing and exporting organisation in the world in the jute sector.
Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI)
The oldest mono-crop research institute of Bangladesh, located at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka. Their major objectives are (a) to regulate, control and promote agricultural, technological and economic research on jute and allied fibres; (b) to organise production, testing and supply of improved pedigree jute seeds and their multiplication, procurement and distribution to recognized organisations, selected growers, and such other agencies as may be approved by the board; (c) to set up research centres, sub-stations, pilot projects and farms in different regions of the country for carrying out research on different problems of jute and allied fibre crops, jute products and allied materials; and (d) to establish project areas for demonstration of new varieties of jute development by the institute and to train farmers for cultivation of those varieties of jute.
A quantity of raw jute selected from various assortments to produce yarn of desired type of quality.
It is a process of selection and mixing of jute fibres into batches and treating them with oil-in-water emulsion softening the fibre prior to carding operation.
The place where great bulk of the jute assessed, selected, brought and sold for export.
The process that follows after spool winding. In Beaming operation yarn from spool is wounded over a beam of proper width and correct number of ends to weave jute cloth. To increase the quality of woven cloth and weaving efficiency, the wrap yarns are coated with starch paste. Adequate moisture is essential in this process.
Quality characteristic of a beam is width of beam – number of ends and weight of stand and there is a continuous passage of yarn through starch solution from spools to the beam. Strach solution in water contains tamerind kernel powder (TKP), antiseptic – sodium silica flouride (NaSiF4) and its concentration varies with the quality of yarn.
The professional village traders or intermediaries in the raw jute trade primary market. They are big merchants and licensed traders having fixed business premises in the wholesale market and they do business with large volume of product.
Composites which are biodegradable, composed of natural fibre reinforcement embedded into a bioplymeric matrix.
The process of interlacing three or more threads is made in such a way that they cross each other and are laid together in a diagonal formation. Flat, tubular, or solid constructions may be formed together in this way.
Rot and fire-proof hessian fabrics often coated used in mines, wind screens and ventilation purpose.
Breaker Carding Machine
Breaker cards are generally down striking and half-circular. In this machine the primary function of jute carding is done by the action of worker and cylinder and the cleaning and the cleaning actions is done between worker and stripper. It is called breaker card because it breaks up to the long reeds of jute.
A measure of yarn strength calculated as the product of breaking strength times the indirect yarn number.
Sometimes the mixture is not uniform and so in some places it is dense and in others it is light. The defect caused by faulty stirring equipment is called breaking.
The maximum resultant internal force that resists rupture in a tension test.
Counting of bags at 25 number in each bundle to ease of packing. Done manually.
Bureau of Indian Standards
An agency which operates a product certification scheme in India and grants licenses to manufacturers covering practically every industrial discipline from agriculture, textiles to electronics. The certification allows the licensees to use the popular ISI Mark, which has become synonymous with Quality products for the Indian and neighbouring markets for decades.
The hessian, a finer quality of jute is called Burlap. Burlap bags are used to ship and store grain, fruits and vegetables, flour, sugar, animal feeds and other agricultural commodities.
Carpet backing cloth (CBC) is a kind of balanced fabric, weighing between 180 – 407 g/m2 used as a base for making carpets. It is the finest jute item, woven with highly premium grades of fiber. Jute canvas and screen lamination along with paper polythene is widely used in mines and for getting protection against weather.
A process similar to ironing of fabric. After damping the damped fabric passes through pairs of heavy rollers rendering threads in fabric flattened and improve the quality and appearance.
A plain weave cloth wholly of jute and double warp and single weft inter-woven, weighting not less than 407 g/m2 with more than 118 ends per dm and not less than 55 picks per dm.
Carding is the heart of the whole spinning process, which causes convert the reeds of jute into a uniform supply of fibrous material which can then be drafted with a little more fiber breakage and provides further opportunity for removal of non-fibrous matter. This action occurs in jute breaker card and finisher card machine between cylinder and worker.
The process by which long strikes of jute fibers, while passing through high speed pinned rollers, are broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in roll form of uniform weight per unit length. See also Mono Carding, Dual Carding and Tandem Carding.
Central Research Institute for Jute & Allied Fibres (CRIJAF)
Formerly known as Jute Agricultural Research Institute (JARI) which started functioning after the partition of India in 1947. CRIJAF emphasis is on the expansion of jute areas, developing high yielding varieties, development of economically viable and sustainable production technology and cropping systems with jute and allied fibre crops and development of proper post-harvest technology for improving the quality of fibre. They focus on White Jute (Tita pat): Corchorus capsularis L. Tiliaceae; Tossa Jute (Mitha pat): Corchorus olitorius L. Tiliaceae; Mesta/Kenaf (Patsan): Hibiscus cannabinus L. Malvaceae; Roselle (Patwa): Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvaceae; Sunnhemp (San): Crotalaris juncea L. Papilionaceae; Ramie (Rheha): Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Urticaceae; Sisal/Agave (Sisal): Agave sislana Perr. Ex Engelm. Agavaceae and Flax (Alsi): Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae.
A conical package of yarn, usually wound on a disposable paper core.
Cop Winding machine obtain yarns from the spinning machines. The spinning bobbins is placed on a suitable pin on top of the cop machine and yarn tension is maintained by means of a small leaver. The yarn on the bobbins are converted into hollow cylindrical package said to be cop. The cop is used to form Transverse thread during interlacement of weaving. Generally a cop winding machines consist 120 spindles.
When an emulsion is prepared it is not possible to make all drops exactly same size. The larger droplets move to the surface because they have less density than water. These droplets cause uneven distribution of water and form a layer on the surface and causes uneven distribution of emulsion. This defect is called creaming. This defect increase yarn breakage during spinning.
A defect when the top end of the fibers is rough, black and hard which makes stripping insufficient.
The process where the sacking cloth is cut to the required length for making bags for different size such as A-Twill bags and B-twill bags of 100 kg capacity.
Jute mill brokers.
Dazed Jute Fibers
Jute fibres which have lost its strength and lustre due to over retting or excessive moisture in them.
The vast variety of decorative products are made up of jute fabrics like wall hangings, toys, table lamps, paper, decorative bags, furniture and many more.
Officially, the weight, in grams, of 9000 meters of yarn.
Directorate of Jute Development
A division under the Indian Government’s Ministry of Agriculture to look after the development of raw jute cultivation and application of scientific methods of cultivation both at micro and macro levels.
A process in which a number of jute slivers fed simultaneously as input into a machine for drafting and delivered as a single sliver as output. By this process, the irregularity of input slivers gets reduced.
The amount of attenuation of textile material at different stages of spinning preparatory and spinning process; for example, 1 m of input material when delivered as 5 m is said to have undergone a draft of 5.
Draw Frame Machine
An important machine in jute yarn manufacturing as this straightens and remove impurities from jute fibers in the sliver.
The breaker card and finisher card work separately and are not joined together.
The process in which the rolled woven cloth is unrolled and water is sprinkled on it continuously to provide desired moisture. Each roll is generally104 yards or 95.976 meters. Damping is done manually.
The ability to endure. In terms of product, it represents long-established ‘good’ design qualities, like efficiency and timelessness as well as quality and performance.
This product is majorly used for coverings on a very high multidimensional scale.
The process of adding colour to textile products like fibres, yarns and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material.
East India Jute & Hessian Exchange Ltd.
A recognised Indian association to regulate forward trading in raw jute and jute goods.
Emulsion is a mixture of some lubricating agents which is applied on jute fiber to make the fiber soften and flexible for spinning; prepared for spun. It is an intimate mixture of two immiscible liquids where one is dispersed in small globules on the other and addition of a third substance brings stability. Emulsion is made by splitting up oil into minute drops which are prevented from reuniting in water. Ingredients are usually water, oil, emulsifier of the ingredients of emulsion.
Jute goods per buyer requirements.
Export Inspection Agency
An agency that fixes up standard of the jute quality product and providing technical guidance on ISO certification.
Part of the primary market, they purchase their entire volume of jute from producers. They buy loose jute in small quantities from farmers and other small dealers who may not possess any license and market and sell the unsorted jute fibres to the Beparis who usually handle a large volume.
Any substance with a high length to width ratio and suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric.
Finisher Carding Machine
Finisher card is full circular and down striking card. After jute is processed by breaker card, it is send to finisher card. The rollers and cylinder are pinned in the same manner as in breaker card but pins are finer and set closer together in Finisher Card Machine.
A chemical compound that can be incorporated into a textile fiber during manufacture, or applied to a fiber, fabric, or other textile item during processing to reduce its flammability.
Hairy jute fiber defect created due to over retting and careless stripping of Jute.
These textile materials are used by civil engineers to solve many geotechnical problems. These materials are made of synthetics or natural fibres in the form of woven and non-woven or their combination. It is a jute cloth laid along the river embankment sides and hill slopes to prevent soil erosion and landslides.
Highly lustrous jute fiber sometimes creates problems and considered a defect.
Also known as a “gunny shoe”, is an inexpensive bag, historically made of hessian (burlap) formed from jute, hemp, or other natural fibers. The name “gunny” derives from the word goni (“thread, fibre”), a Tulu word from the language spoken in Mangalore. Modern sacks are often made from man-made products such as polypropylene.
Gunny Trades Association
The largest Association in Kolkata and controls practically the whole gunny market. The Gunny Trades Association was established in 1925 as a non-profit sharing company. Today, there are 666 members of this Association including gunny merchants, dealers, shippers, jute mills and jute brokers. The main object of this Association is to regulate the business in manufactured jute goods and to arbitrate in matter of dispute relating to this trade.
The tactile qualities of a fabric, e.g., softness, firmness, elasticity, fineness, resilience and other qualities perceived by touch.
A jute defect caused from badly damaged rotten or tendered fibers.
In Hemming process, the raw edges of sacking cloth cut pieces are shown by folding it with sewing machine.
In Herackle sewing the sides of sacking cloth cut pieces are shown to make a complete bag.
Hessian (or Burlap)
A single warp plain weave jute fabric weighing from 4.5 oz to 18 oz a yard ( 139.5 gm to 434.0 gm per metre) with a normal basic width of 40″ (101.60 cm) being manufactured in various widths and weight / area, up to a maximum of 500 g/m2. The colour of the fabric requires as a rule that it should be manufactured from good quality “white” jute.
Hessian Canvas Tarpaulins
Canvas is a closely woven cloth of fine texture, weighing from 14 oz to 24 oz a yard of 37″ width (434 gm to 744.1 gm a metre of 94.0 cm width). Tarpaulins weigh between 15 oz and 18 oz a yard of 45″ width (465.1 gm and 558.1 gm a metre of 114.3 cm width).
Hessian tapes and gaps
They are made up with hessian cloth, woven with gaps at regular intervals and the cloths cut between the gaps to make small width taps.
These types of yarn are good, clean and free from specks with high lustre. For manufacturing this type of yarn, clean and defect free jute is required. To make this type of yarn clean and defect free jute is required.
Hessian weft yarn is cleaner and softer than hessian warp yarn. So for hessian weft clean fibre is required, but fibre of lower strength can be used to hessian weft yarn.
Hydrocarbon free jute cloth
This cloth is fabricated by treating jute with vegetable oil. It is a hessian fabric, hydrocarbon free cloth, widely used for packing different food materials, cocoa, coffee, peanut beans etc.
It is the resistance to fracture when certain localized load is applied to the specimen. This is of two types Notched and Unnotched.
Indian Jute Industries’ Research Association (IJIRA)
Established in 1937, the first co-operative R & D organisation in India to render services to the Indian Jute Industry and Government Agencies who were promoting Indian Jute in domestic market as well as exporting to the other countries. Today, they are the premier Institution on research and development of Jute and allied fibers in India.
The synergistic improvement of a total system’s strength created by the introduction of a geotextile (good in tension) into a soil (in compression but poor in tension) or into other disjointed and separated material.
Institute of Jute technology (IJT)
Established on 20th February, 1947 and jointly founded by University of Calcutta and Indian Jute Mills’ Association with the main object of imparting knowledge of jute technology and training of students
International Jute Study Group (IJSG)
An intergovernmental body set up under the aegis of UNCTAD to function as the International Commodity Body (ICB) for Jute, Kenaf and other Allied Fibres. The International Jute Study Group (IJSG) is the legal successor to the erstwhile International Jute Organisation (IJO), which was established to administer the provisions and supervise the operations of the Agreement establishing the Terms of Reference of the International Jute Study Group, 2001. The IJSG formally entered into force on and from 27 April 2002 with the completion of the process of Definitive Acceptance/Acceptance by the Governments of Bangladesh, India, Switzerland, and the European Community representing its all member countries.
A long, soft, shiny plant fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibers, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. The fibres are obtained from the bast layer of the plants Corchorus Capsularis and Corchorus Olitorius. Commercially, jute is divided into two main classes, White Jute generally being associated with Corchorus Capsularis, and dark jute with Corchorus Olitorius. Each of The these classes is further sub-divided into numerous grades denoting quality and other characteristics.
Jute Balers’ Association
A recognized association in developing and trading of raw jute at Kolkata (W.B.) in India.
Jute Corporation of India (JCI)
An agency of the government of India that assists jute cultivators in states where this crop is grown, providing minimum price support.
Cuttings are considered the lowest grade of jute. Like other harvested products, cuttings are often the left over jute of other grades and can be a mixture of leftovers. Jute cuttings are most often used to make paper products; less often, jute cuttings are used to make bags, ropes or other goods, as these products are not as strong. Both white raw jute and tossa raw jute cuttings are available in grades A and B.
Jute Manufacturers Development Council (JMDC)
The national agency for promotion of Indian Jute under Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. JMDC was created by an act of Indian Parliament in the year 1983. The Council’s body is composed of Jute experts, producers and exporters of Jute products, growers of Jute, person engaged in production of Jute goods, different departments of Government of India and local governments of Jute growing states chaired by the secretary, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. JMDC’s prime objective is to provide better marketing of jute product, although it is engaged in several multi-dimentional activities regarding jute.
can be classified in five divisions. They are: Batching, Carding, Drawing, Spinning, Winding. They are the main process, either there are sub process to manufacture jute yarn. There are two types of yarn are produced from jute spinning; sacking yarn and hessian yarn. See also Silver Spinning and Roving Spinning.
Descriptive of staple yarn that has been prepared and spun on machinery originally designed for spinning yarns from jute.
Jute Tarpaulin Fabric
Double warp, single weft, interwoven, plain weave cloth made wholly of jute, weighting not more than 610 g/m2 having not more that 118 ends per dm and not more than 55 picks per dm.
Kenaf is a fast growing plant of the bast fibre group-species Hibiscus cannabinus. It is usually known as Mesta. Kenaf requires a warm, moist climate and grows in well-drained, sandy loam soils. Kenaf is less demanding on the soil than jute and may be grown in rotation with other crops. The fibre strands, about 3 feet long are pale in colour and lustrous leading producers include India, Bangladesh, Thailand and China. It is mainly used for cordage, canvas, sacking and other products such as news print and carpet-backing yarn. Kenaf is lower quality than jute.
A process of joining two broken pieces of yarns by tying together.
A defect caused by insect bite in the jute plants.
A bale packing is used extensively in the internal trade, to the Secondary market from the primary market. A hand-pressed package of raw jute consisting various morahs or bundles bound with jute ropes, usually weighing 130 kg to 150 kg and sometimes only 55 kg. The preliminary pressing is generally carried out manually using heavy weights or steam press. In other instances, jute may be packed into a lightly twisted bundle of four to seven seers of fibre.
Balers mainly operate in the secondary markets, where the sorting into commercial grade takes place.
The process in which Hessian fabrics are folded into the required size used in “Bale press” operation on the lapping machine.
Lengths of fabric, several plies high, ready for cutting.
The process of spreading lengths of fabric on a cutting table to make a lay.
In draw frame process, it is the difference in the surface speed of fallers over the surface speed of retaining r/r to give sufficient tension to the sliver.
Number of minutes, hours, or days that occur to complete an operation or process, or must elapse before a desired action takes place.
Mass per unit length for any textile fibre, sliver or yarn.
Linoleum Backing in another special type of hessian weighing from 7 oz to 15 o per yard (217 gm to 465.1 gm per metre) with the width range 60″ to 100″ (152.4 cm to 254 cm) and above.
Softening or sogginess of cellulose tissues due to retention of excessive moisture.
Jute floor covering fabric woven in plain, stripped, dobby or jacquard designs.
It is a bast fibre obtained from the plant of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus cannabinus. It is a substitute for jute with coarseness higher than jute. Mesta is a blend of the mesta plant and raw white jute, and is graded differently than raw white jute and tossa raw jute; the grades are mesta top, mesta mid and mesta bottom. Mesta because a part of jute production in 1947, when India had to partition its land. Since that time, mesta has become a more important part of this blend because mesta is capable of growing in areas where the climate is not appropriate for raw white or tossa jute.
Fibers with strands thinner than one denier. Fabrics made with microfibers are exceptionally soft and hold their shape well.
A fungal growth on any jute material.
Factories that transform fibres (such as cotton fibre, flax fibre and hemp fibre) into yarn or cloth.
A yarn, fabric, or other textile product that has not been inspected, or does not come up to standard quality.
Moisture regain is a measure of the increase in a fiber’s weight due to the absorption of water. The term is usually expressed as a percentage, calculated by dividing the saturated weight by the dry weight.
The breaker and finisher card are to separate machines but the jute is directly delivered from the delivery of the breaker to the feed of the finisher card.
This refers to any single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually of a denier higher than 14. Rather than a group of filaments being extruded through spinnerets to form a yarn, Monofilaments generally are spun individually.
A defect when moss adhere to the jute fibers when the stems stay too long in stagnant of water.
National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology (NIRJAFT)
A premier institute under Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi and dedicated to the cause of jute and allied fibres leading to the diversified use and industrial growth.
National Jute Board of India (NJB)
Framed by the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India and enacted by the Parliament on February 12, 2009, NJB engages in research and human resource development programmes to explore new and innovative use of jute with the idea of enabling both the organized as well as the decentralized sector to compete and increase the global share of Indian jute goods consumption.
National Jute Manufactures Corporation Ltd.(NJMC)
Apex body for management of all nationalised jute mills in India.
A class name for various genera of fibers of animal (wool and silk), mineral (asbestos) or vegetable (cotton, flax, and jute).
A terminology used for draw framing, it is the distance between the foremost gill where the pins leave the sliver and the bite of the pressing and drawing r/r is known as nip.
A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibres, or both, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means and combinations thereof. Otherwise, fabric made by unconventional method of fabric preparation. Products manufactured through non-woven technology under technical textiles category are used for various end-use applications. A fabric-like textile structure, having wide range of thickness and being produced from an assembly of fibres (with random or parallel orientation) by applying bonding with adhesive/thermal treatment/needle punching.
Office of Jute Commission (Ministry of Textile)
An office which advices the Government of India and the jute industry and trade on allies matters relating to the development of jute industry and to implement the government policies.
A textile’s ability or propensity to absorb oil.
The process by which emulsion applied long jute fibers are kept under a thick fabric for a certain time as a result fiber become soft and flexible. Depending on fiber quality the pilling time is varied.
Pitch of the Faller
Used in draw framing, it is the distance between the one row of pins of one faller bar to pins of next faller bar is called pitch of faller.
The type of weave in a cloth in which each warp thread or a pair of warp threads pass alternatively over and under each weft thread.
An assembly of two / more single yarns twisted together in a direction (say, S, and opposite to that say, Z) in its component single yarns to have a balanced twisted structure.
Initial warp beam to be used in final beaming/sizing where number of threads/yarn are very high (optional).
Prefabricated Drain (PVD)
These geo-composites are generally vertically inserted in the ground with their ends protruding over the ground surface and with underground water being forced out of them under pressure, they resemble a set of giant wicks.
Any treatment which is undertaken before any actual dyeing and printing process.
Jute producers are the primary link in the raw jute-marketing channel. Most of the jute farmers belong to the self-financed small and marginal farmer categories.
Hydraulically power-pressed bale of commercial quality jute usually bound with jute ropes coming from the Secondary market to the Terminal Market. The pucca bales are produced in the press mainly for exports. Its standard size is ( 120 X 45 X 50 ) cm and having net weight of 180 kg.
Balers or exporters who receive processed jute sold by Kutcha balers.
A term used to describe how a fabric is supplied. Put-Up is usually described in terms of length, on rolls, or bulk supplied and may have standards as to how many “cuts” are allowed per roll, or box.
In manufacturing, a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies and malfunctioning. It is brought about by strict and consistent commitment to certain standards that achieve uniformity of a product in order to satisfy specific customer or user requirements.
A terminology used for draw framing, it is the distance from the centre point of the retraining r/r to the bite of the pressing and drawing r/r is known as reach.
Any kind of fibre that undertakes a recycling process. It offers a low-impact alternative to other fibre sources, with reduced level of energy material and chemical consumption possible.
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (R3)
The three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behaviour. Reduce means that the number of purchases made by a single individual should be limited. The concept behind the second R, reuse, is that used items should be reused as much as possible before replacing them. The third R, Recycle, suggests that the items should be used for a new purpose as much as possible.
A process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on jute plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem.
The various ways of Retting jute are: Mechanical retting (hammering), chemical retting (boiling & applying chemicals), steam/vapour/dew retting, and water or microbial retting. Among them, the water or microbial retting is a century old but the most popular process in extracting fine fibers. However, selection of these retting processes depends on the availability of water and the cost of retting process.
A defect which occurs due to various reasons such as under retting of the root ends of jute fibers and if the root portion is not completely under water during ratting.
A long rope of fibers where all of the fibers are going parallel to the roving.
In roving spinning, yarn is produced from roving sliver of roving frame. By this spinning process finer and superior quality jute yarn can be produced. In this spinning process after passing through three drawing frame, sliver are converted into rove by a roving frame and after that a spinning frame is used to produce yarn.
Long hard and broken ribbon-like fibers caused by careless stripping and washing.
Jute fabric made of double warp and single weft with plain or twill weave and mostly used for manufacturing jute bags. Made up of low quality jute fibers, sacking cloth is loosely woven heavy cloth used for packing sugar, food grains, cement etc. Weighing from 15 to 20 ozs, several qualities are available in this category like Twill, heavy Cees, D.W Flour, Cement Bags and many more.
Sacking warp jute yarn is good and strong. Specks and colour is not important when manufacturing this type of yarn. So, 70 to 80% Tossa jute can be used.
Sacking weft yarns are low quality yarn. It is coarse and is made from low grade jute fibre. It may contain line cuttings, bale cuttings, soft and hard waste, rope waste, jute dust, habijabi and entangled jute.
In Safety sewing, the sides of sacking which was sown at the time of Herackle Sewing is again stitched to enhance the strength of the Bags edge.This kind of stitching is generally done on FCI bags.
This is the export quality jute yarns being used mainly by carpet manufacturing mills.
A generic term for low quality plain cloth with traditional cover factors for both warp and weft at above 4. The mass per unit area will vary with the type of fibre used.
The second marketing channel of the jute trade where hanks of fibres are brought by boat, or on men’s heads, to the nearest market, and there sold to the dealers who go into the interior. This is where commercial fibre quality are assessed, selected, bought and sold to the resident merchant, and is generally made up into drums, before forwarding to its destination and conveyed to export marts.
The process by which raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the morah by experienced workers. Raw jute bales are of two types i.e. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting.
It is a light weight hessian cloth, used in felt industry for reinforcing the non-woven fabric and for strengthening paper with lamination.
The long continuous ribbon of fibres, loosely held together, that comes out from the carding and drawing machines.
In sliver spinning, yarn is produced from the sliver of finisher drawing frame. Sliver spinning is used for majority of jute yarn.
In softening process, jute morahs are made soft and pliable. Two methods are used for softening; use of softening machine and use of jute good spreader. Generally an emulsion plant with jute softener machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute. The emulsion plant consists of gear pump, motor, vat, jet sprayer, nozzles, emulsion tank and the jacket. In this softening process jute becomes soft and pliable and suitable for carding.
A typical open weave woven jute geotextile used for controlling erosion of soil. Also branded as “anti-Wash” and loosely as “geojute”.
A major defect which lowers the quality of Jute fibers. It’s when the jute fibers are not rotted and washed properly; the barks of jute adhere to the fibers and causes them speck.
A large number of special hessian are at present, manufactured by the Indian industry, These include bright, fine and dyed scrim fabrics, jute, cotton and buckram fabrics.
In Spool Winding yarn is produces for warp (the longitudinal yarn). Spool winding machine consists of a number of spindles. There is wide variation in the number of spindles per machines from one make to another. Productivity of spool winding depends on the surface speed of the spindle and machine utilisation.
Spool winding machine uses the bobbins contain smaller length of yarn. This machine wound the yarn into bigger packages known as ‘spool’. The Spool are used in making sheets of yarn to form warp portion used during interlacement of weaving.
In jute spinning frame flyer is used to insert twist to produced yarn after required draft.
A defect caused by over-retting of the lower part of the jute plant, under-retting of lower part of the plant or under-retting of the top end.
The breaker card and the finisher card are combined together to form one carding machine. The two machines have common parts. The jute passes from doffer of the breaker card to the taker in of the finisher card.
These textile materials are meant for serving some technical or utility functions and not for normal textile uses like apparel, home furnishings, etc.
In general, the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as distinct from torsion, compression or shear.
A method of measuring the resistance of yarn, or fabric to a force tending to stretch the specimen in one direction.
The terminal market is where exporters operate and procure loose jute from dealers of jute and baled jute from Kutcha balers and Pucca balers. They also purchase baled jute from the Bangladesh Jute Corporation (BJC), the government owned entity. They sell baled jute to the mills through Dalals, while selling Pucca bales to the foreign buyers. Foreign buyers purchase Pucca bales from exporters and processed jute from mills with the help of international brokers.
This is the universal unit for yarn count; it is the weight in grams per kilometer of yarn.
The number of warp threads per inch plus the number of weft threads.
Thread Per Inch
The measurement of the number of threads per inch of material.
The hard, thready waste left on bobbins or collected during mill operations such as spinning, twisting, and weaving. Un-sized thread waste is chopped and shredded into a fibrous condition and used for spinning, casket pillows and mattresses, non-woven products and more.
Used for wrapping tobacco leaves, tobacco sheets are made up of hessian cloth.
Tow waste is the short or broken fibers, created during the processing of flax, hemp, jute and synthetics, which are gathered and cut up to produce staple fiber for yarn spinning, twine and upholstery stuffing.
Fiber that is purchased from a supplier for resale to a customer without any re-processing in between.
A weave that produces diagonal lines on the surface of the cloth.
A plied yarn formed by twisting together two or more strands of yarns.
Manufacturing of multi-strand yarns known as twine or plied yarn.
A term applied to fabrics that can shed water, but are permeable to air and comfortable to wear.
A defect caused by over-retting and also under-drying and sorting in moist condition.
The type of interlacement of warp and weft to form a fabric.
A process of interlacement of two series of threads called “wrap” and “weft” yarns to produce the fabric of desired quality. There are separate looms for hessian and sacking in weaving section. The Hessian looms, shuttle which contents cops (weft yarn) is manually changed. The sacking looms are equipped with eco-loader to load a cop automatically into the shuttle.
Willowing is a step in the recycling of textiles during which the material is beaten in order to soften and separate the fibers. More importantly, the process enables heavier non-fiber materials such as zippers, button, rivets and stays to be removed.
A process which provides yarn as spools and cops for the requirement of beaming and weaving operations. There are two types of winding: 1. Spool Winding; 2.Cope Winding
A product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section of fibres and/or filaments with or without twist.
A length of yarn in a form suitable for handling, sorting or shipping. Packages may be unsupported as skeins or cakes, or prepared with various winding patterns of bobbins cops, pins, spools, tubes or beams.